ANIRVAN AKASH - Sky Enlightenment Of Inner Yoga - Live Within









We have already said, kenopanishad consists of four sections of the fourth chapter of Jaiminiya Upanishad. It is called Kenopanishad, because like Ishopanishad it begins with the word Kena. It is also called “Talankara Upanishad following the name of the author or teacher. The Upanishad begins directly with Brahman as the subject matter. It talks about works at the end.


The Upanishad mainly expounds and elaborates the knowledge of Brahman. In the first section we find some resemblance to “Neti Vada” – the Vedantic Doctrine of “Not this, not this”. It is said that we cannot know or attain Brahman by means of speech, Mind, the Ear or Prana – the Life force. Brahman is more than what can be known by these; It is the basis as well, of all that cannot be known.


Continuing the subject, it is said in the second section, just as we cannot say that “We know It”; similarly we cannot also say that “We know It not” In fact we can know It by refective perception or awakened consciousness. Moreover, we have to know It, otherwise there is great perdiction.

That which cannot be known and again that which can be known and again that which can be known as well, is indeed an indescribable Mystery. This is expounded in the third section through a story about daemon (yaksha), Uma Indra and other gods.


In the fourth section we have some aphoristic consideration about the reality of Brahman and the discipline necessary for its attainment. Brahman is “That Delight”; the Friend or the Lover. It is attained as the flash of the lightening.


In the Upanishad we do not have and definite description or qualities of Brahman. Everywhere we find the halo of Its mystery. This Upanishad wonderfully conveys indescribability of the mystic experience.


The Upanishad begins with Peace Invocation. The Upanishads of SamaVeda have their specific Peace Invocations. But one more peace invocation is added to the Upanishad in some versions – “Sahanau avatu: etc. In fact this is the peace invocation of the Upanishads of Krishna yajur veda, foremost of which is Taittiriya Upanishad. It begins with “Shiksha Valli” the chapter on teaching where the teacher and the taught are involved. Kathopanishad is also a “dialogue” or discussion between yama and wachiketa. The Swetasvatura Upanishad begins with the questions of the seekers of Brahman. The rest of the Upanishad is on answer to the questions.


The peace invocation of these Upanishads is therefore like a dialogue between the Teacher and the taught. We can see if properly observed that Kenopanishad too is a dialogue from the beginning to end. Because of that probably, the peace invocation “Sahanan avatu” was added to this Upanishad by some commentators. But if we take into consideration the main idea of this Upanishad, the following is the chief invocation of Kenopanishad.


Om, Apyayantu, mama angani, vak pranah


cakshuh, srotram atho balam, indriyani c sarvani sarvan brahmopanisadam, ma aham brahma nira kuryam, ma ma brahma nira karot, anira karanam me astu, tadatmani nirate ya upanisatsu dharmah te mayi santu , to mayi santu|


Om Santih Santih Santih||


Everything that is revealed in the Upanishad is Brahman. May I not repudiate Brahman; May not Brahman repudiate me. Let there be no repudiation, rejection of me or from me. So long as I am engaged in the pursuit of the self, may all the virtues, good qualities spoken of in the Upanishad repose in me, may they repose in me.


Om Peace! Peace! Peace!


(Let there be peace here, peace there, peace everywhere)




In the peace invocation of each Veda, there is an indication of the practice and attainment of the God. In the peace invocation of the Ishopanishad, we had the illumination and experience of the abound integral fullness, which is the result of the unattached pure works of the dedicated worker who is inspired by the divine will to live for a hundred years! In the Peace Invocation of Aitariya Upanishad there was the proclamation of the unity of speech and mind, which is the result of the discipline of the great sound i.e. Omkara similarly the main spirit of the peace invocation of Kenopanishad is the all round development of a good and noble life. Let us try to dive deep in the meaning.


At many places in the Vedas, Rik, yajuh and sama are respectively associated with the three worlds, Bhuh – the earth, Bhuvah (the midregions) and swah- the heavens and the three Gods, Agni- the fire, Vayu- the Air and Aditya- the Sun. The three worlds are the worlds of light. Subjectively they are the three states of consciousness. Through the sadhana discipline- of Sama, the consciousness ascends to the heavens. That is the place of Sun or the God of the Non- dual consciousness. On the earth resides the Fire, the God of our ascending aspiration. Through sacrifice the Flame of Fire reaches the Sun. That is the ascent of the concentrated aspiration of man to the Non- dual consciousness of the Sun, “Vena” the lover or “Bandhu” a Friend is another name for Sun. It connotes both “Surya” the Sun and “Soma” the Moon in Rig Veda. Subjectively the Sun denotes knowledge; the Moon denotes Bliss. Ascending to the Sun through the Sadhana of “Udgitha” i.e. Om or Sama mantras then means illuminations of the supreme knowledge in the pervasive Vast consciousness; as well as the oozing or springing up of the supreme Bliss – which we now call the experience of the knowledge and Bliss of Brahman. At many places in Rig Veda, especially in the Soma Mandala, this is called the Union of the Sun and the Moon – Surya Soma. Again, sama means both musical note as well as harmony. Thus the unions of Soma – surya i.e. the Moon and the Sun, develops in our consciosness a musical supreme harmony; technical term for which is “Brihat Sama” or the music of the Vast. It is the same as the music of the Sun, the music of the heavens, the music of the Prana or life, breath the music of the best- Sreshtha or the highest – “Jyestha”. To exult in this divine music is the full or total development of this exultance of Joy and bliss in Taittiriya Upanishad attained as a result of the knowedge by the great Rishi Bhrigu the son of Varuna.




“Apya yantu”: - thus the first word “apya yantu” – in the Peace Invocation of the Upanishad of the sama veda carries a deep meaning. We have said elsewhere that there are mainly two streams of the Arya ideal – one is that of the Rishis, the other is that of the Munis. Though both the streams inseparably intermingle at the time of sadhana, there are very clear differences as regards to their fruits, which how slowly results in the divisions of seats in our country. Fullness or fulfillment of life predominates in the way of the Rishis, where as “Nirodha” negation or restraint predominates in the way of the Munis. The sadhana of the one is expansion of the self-consciousness, to spread out, radiant self-consciousness all around; everywhere. The sadhana of the other is withdrawal or gathering of the consciousness within one’s self and unify it there. “Sarvam Khalu Idam Brahma”, All this is Brahma indeed – is the great aphorism (mahavakya) of the one (the rishi cult) as said in Chandogya Upanishad. It is the same as “ sarvam Brahmopanishadam” – Everything that is revealed in the Upanishad is Brahman – of this Upanishad. The great aphorism (mahavakya) of the other is “ na-iti, neti, neti” – “Not this, not this” of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The philosophy of the one is illustrated in the ancient Vedanta; that of the other is expounded in the sankhya philosophy. The seeing of one is cosmic – spiritual (adhidaivat), to see God everywhere with this very eye. The seeing of the other is “adhyatma” subjective – to see the self-deep within with indrawn eyes. The means of one is perception through inner reflection “Pratibidha” or “bodhi” – intuition. The means of the other is “Buddhi” – intellect.


But in reality there is no opposition between the two philosophies. In the words of Sri Ramakrishna, while going up to the terrace one says at every step “this is not terrace, this is not terrace”, but after climbing to the terrace, while coming down, he sees and says that the staircase, each step of it is same as the terrace, made of brick, lime and brick dust. During Sadhana to get rid of Ignorance – avidya, restraint or control is necessary – we find instruction (injunction) about it in the very beginning of Kenopanishad. But when we go to the world unattainable by the eye, the speech or even the mind we see that all this that is here is illuminated by the light of darkness and we know truth truly only when we know it here.


In the Vedas and Brahmanas, “apyayana” fulfillment is a technical word connected with soma. It means increasing of the moon through its digits. Increasing or nourishment of the soma is the body; the receptacle is for strengthening of the body like vajra – the weapon of Indra – as in Vajrayoga; for immortality, to become like uttamasrava (the best of the heavens) in the heavens. All these are the fruits of Soma sacrifice and the highest attainment – summum – bonum of the rishi cult. The Taittiriya Upanishad says, “ the uttama purusha”, - The best of Men (one that has attained the highest), then becomes a singer of bliss and harmony, way-farer of all the worlds, fulfilling all his desires in all forms. He is both the food and the eater of the food, the first born of Rita – the creation, the first God amongst Gods, navel of immortality, Gaurdian, Custodian of this Universe. This all illuminating expansion of the experience of self, this is the experience of the person who has direct perception of Brahman and that is the speciality of the Rishi – Cult.


Preparation for studying the Upanishad begins with this idea of Fulfillment, of all round development. Whose fulfillment? – of all the limits of the body, of speech, life, breath, the eye and the ear and as a result increasing of strength and force of all limbs and all senses. In Chandogya Upanishad we find discussion about the five Brahmapurushas – personalities of Brahman – who are called the “doorkeepers of the heavens”. They are the speech, the eye, the ear, the mind and the life – breath (prana). Here in this Peace Invocation, mind is not mentioned. But in the very beginning of the Kenopanishad all the five are mentioned. In Aitureya – aranya ka they are called “Brahma – giri” – mountains of Brahman.


The idea of “Brahmapurusha” – Brahman as a person – is very ancient. We first know about them in the Hymn of goddess Vak in Rigveda. The seven pranas life – breath in the head mentioned in the Taittiriya Samhita (compendince of Hymn) is another form of expressing the same idea. The Seven Pranas are the seven Flames of the Vaiswanara Fire of the Body. This fire is the annada – the eater of the food in us. It transforms the food that we eat into the Flames of Prana and Mind. The flames rise up from the stomach to the head, and spring out from the seven holes of the head. The seven holes are, two of the eyes, two of the ears, two holes in the nose for smelling and breathing and one of the month or organ of speech. The self – born inner – consciousness interacts with the world through these holes. We call them senses. Amongst senses of knowledge – eyes and ears and amongst senses of action, the speech is considered chief, as they are the main instruments for the action and development of the mind – consciousness. Prana and consciousness are constant companions always attached to one another. It is worth noting that as here even in the yaju samhita is mind is not mentioned amongst the Pranas in the head; suggesting that Mind is the gathering and resort of all the activities of Prana. Though mind is not specifically mentioned here, we can easily infer its connection. In Rik Samhita at one place it is mentioned that the eyes, the ear, the mind and the speech are flying about in search of infinity but there is no mention of the Mind there, instead of mind the light of heart (harda- jyoti) mentioned. Heart and Prana – the life breath are kindred. Heart and Mind are like companions. Like mind, heart too is a seeker of Truth. There is such indication in the Masadiya Hymn of Rig Veda. Brahma – Purushas of Chandogya Upanishad are different kinds of life breaths – Prana. There more importance is given to the seeing and hearing of the inner being, the soul or atman.


If we take strength (bala) of the Peace Invocation as a special function of the life – breath (prana) and “All the senses” also as a function of mind and life-breath. We will get here five Brahma- Purushas well known in Samhita’s. Moreover we have here – the anga – the organs where in all this are established. Their nourishment, fulfillment and non- suppression is the gati of attaining Brahman. Let us see how that is possible.




We begin with the fulfillment, nourishment of the organs – limbs of the body. The whole body is “Tanu”(another name for “deha” the body in which all organs are stretched from the root “tan”) and all its different parts are called limbs or organs. We know that in the Veda both “Tanu” and “atman” are interchangeable terms. “Purusha” the man or the person is a combination of both “atma and tanu”. In aitareya aranyaka both “purusha” and “prajapati” – the creator God – are called “an amalgamation of twenty five” or “the twenty five only”. There, the whole trunk of the body is called “atma” and with two hands, two feet and their twenty fingers (altogether twenty four) it is called the “twenty five”. If the soul and the body are the two interchangeable and inseparable entities, then we can say in the words of Kalidas “Shariram adyam khalu dharma sadhanam” – body indeed is the main instrument for the practice of Dharma. The true attainment of spiritual life lies not in the neglect or disregard of the body but in the purification, physical, vital and mental – cultural development of the body – this is the firmly rooted belief and ideal of the Vedic cult or the Rishi Cult.


We will give here a short acquaintance of the same.


Aditiya – the sun is the main deity of the followers of the Veda. Unification or Identification with the sun is the highest goal, summum- bonum of the Vedic spiritual discipline. The light and the heart of the Sun is revealed in the body of the worshipper as the light and heat of “agni” the Fire. The fire in the body is the fire of consciousness – “Cidagni”. To increase the heat of the body through the worship of “Vaiswanara Agni” – the Fire –God – that resides in all human beings – is called – Tapati “the ansterity or “Tapasya”, severe self discipline or religious austinities. Agni – the Fire God is called “Tapaswana” – “Austerity itself” – the worshippers of the Fire God, the Rishi’s or the Fathers are also called “Tapsvan”. They have attained heavens or the Blissful immortal worlds through the discipline of Austerities. As a result they have attained “surya tvacha” – i.e. “Sun skin” on this very earth, just like “Apata” a vedic rishika, whose body has become sunlike by the grace of Indra. We see in the Brahmanas that the highest goal, summum bonum of Yajamana – the sacrificese – is to attain the divine womb that is Fire of the Sacrifice. Sun Skin and the golden Body is the same thing. In the Upanishads it is called “Brahma – Varcas” – the light of Brahman or the light of the self that shines in the body of the sadhaka – the seeker that is the fruit of the worship of Brahman or the self. We have a beautiful description of this in the Sveta Svatara Upanishad. There we find how the fire elements of the body develop as a result of the infusion of the yogic qualities in them and how there by the body of the sadhaka is saturated by the Fire of yogs and makes the body free from Mdagez, disease and death. This is called in the Tantra, Purification of the elements – “Bhuta Suddhi” as a result of which the inertia and grossiness of the five elements from the earth onwards start decreasing and the body becomes sky like “ akashavat”. In Kathopanishad, “Purification of the elements” called the “Purification or clarity of the essential ingrediants of the body” – dhatu-prasada by which the light of the inner being shines in the physical body and through which one experiences the greatness and grand cure of the self. When the fire spreads throughout the wood, then it becomes charcoal “angara” or glowing enkindled coal. This is the analogy for the body enkindled by the fire of yoga. Then only the difference between the body and the self disappears.




This is the fulfillment of the limbs. It begins with the steadiness of the body. Patanjali deals about it in the description of the posture of the body for yoga discipline – asana – the third limb of the eight-limbed way of the yoga. To be able to sit steadily for sometime is the opposing of the unsteadiness, troubling of the body. Steadiness of body is acquired by the practice of relaxation and expansion of consciousness into the infinite. This mantra in Rik Samhita beautifully describes its fruitfulness. May all our limbs be strong and steady. May our body be like prayer or a sama song. May we enjoy a full life ordained by God.




The mystery behind the praying sama singing body is described in Jaiminiya Upanishad. The body of the singer of sama hymns becomes sama itself. But sama has no body its nothing but the vibration of the tune. The body of the singer of the summer hymns also becomes just like that – the vibration of the tune only. The outer form remains as it is. But if somebody embraces him he will feel that he is embracing water, or a flame of fire, or smoke or the air or the sky – there will be no feeking of solidity of a body in it. This is bodilessness or unembodied body! Or immortal sama body or the body of musical harmony which is immortal. There are seven stages of a sama from Himkar to Nidhana – from the beginning of the humming sound to its end. Through them the singer of the sama hymn frees from the body of the sacrificer the bonds of death that binds the sacrificers hair, skin, flesh, muscles, all the limbs, bones and marrow.


It is said in the same Upanishad that thus he, the singer jsama establishes him in the divine fold heavens keeping his body and limbs intact.


This is the fulfillment, the nourishment of the limbs! Next comes the full nourishment of the speech, which is the main organ amongst the organs of action.


“Puruska” – the Man is a combination of the body, senses and consciousness. In the Kaushitaki Upanishad are these three are called measure material, vital and mental (knowledge) elements or measures, that are intermixed and interdependent. As philosophical entities they are matter (inert or inanimate), life, breath and consciousness. In the peace invocation though the senses and life breath are separately mentioned fundamentally they are parallel- the senses are different modes of the life- forth. This idea finds support in the dispute between the life force and the senses in the Upanishads. It is worth- noting that in the fundamental elements or principles in the somkhya philosophy there is no mention of the life force, but the senses are mentioned.


There are ten senses, five senses of Action and five senses of knowledge. They are called “dasha yantra” the ten instruments or machines in the Rik Samhita. Though there is separate mention of “All the senses “sarvaki indriyani” here, there is specific mention of four senses, the speech, prana pr the life – breath instead of the sense of smell, the eye and the year. Among the five doormen (dwara purushas), the mind is omitted here in the peace invocation, but it is mentioned in the first verse of the Kenopanishad. Most probably as mind is the seat of all the senses, it is supposed that “sarvani Indriyani” All the senses – included the mind as well. In the beginning we get mention of the main unto the ear that are special instrument for the attainment of Brahman. Then follows the strength and all the senses (sarva indriyani). The significance of their order and division will be clear as we go forward.


The first instrument of obtaining Brahman is the body, about which we were talking so long. The body becomes purified by taking pure food. It is said in the chandogya that the inner being becomes pure with pure food. This idea is inherited in our country till today. One powerful instrument in this purification is the sacrifice of “Pranagni” the fires of life force. Chandogya Upanishad tells us about this as well – performance of which still continues amongst us in its skeleton form. In Rig Veda we find prescript called “Pitu” i.e. eating and drinking with a divine outlook. The sublimates of the purification of the body is attaining sun-skin “suryatwaka” – golden body – hiranya Sharira – or the body full of the fire of yoga – Yogagnimaya Sharire – This is the purification of the elements or the material being of the seekers and knower’s of Brahman.


After the purification of the material body comes the purification of the senses. There are divisions of the senses – the senses of action and the senses of knowledge. The first is dependent or Prana – the life- force, the second on knowledge. We have seen in the Aitareya Upanishad that orderly higher and higher development of knowledge or intelligence is goal of human life. In this respect first comes the importance of good action, then of knowledge. Therefore, in Sadhana – spiritual practice – too, first comes the purification of the senses of action and thereafter the purification of the senses of knowledge. The sense that is very near to knowledge is the sense of speech – vak. The speech and the mind are inter-related and inter-dependent, we have seen in the peace invocation of Aitaraya Upanishad. The sense of speech in human beings is the distinctive facility of the thinking man. And so comes the importance of the speech vak the nourishment and development of the speech after the nourishment of the body.


Vak- the speech –There are many mystic references for Vak – the speech in the Veda. We have given the brief summary about it in the Aitareya Upanishad prasanga. Vak is word Brahman. In the Veda it is the main instruments for attaining the supreme Brahman. Vak – the speech is four-footed, her three feet are hidden in the cave of heart and are unusual. The fourth foot is usable by men. Its tantric name is “Vaikhari” - articulate utterances. It has double use, Vedic and mundane. In Vedic use, it is mainly called “Ukitha” the upward raising word or the Udgitha”, the upward raising song or hymn. This Vak is a means of spiritual practice. The way of the spiritual practice – sadhana – is to raise ordinary articulate utterances – the Vaikhari speech – to the supreme transcendent - para – or “Brahmi” speech. Then it culminates in “Pranava” – Om – or the one lettered – Ekapadi – Vak. This one lettered vak or Om is inseparably united with Brahman and is the harmonious vibration of the supreme sky. The search of the cave – hidden speech is the true nourishment “apyayana” of the speech. In the mantra- Shastras – esoteric or mystic literature it is called “search for sound” – nadanusandhan – which was a very popular spiritual practice amongst the mystics of the Middle Ages. As a result of this apyayana – nourishment – the dormant energy or force of speech is awakened. It is called in the tantras “mantra- virya” – the force or energy of the Mantra – the mystic word. The energy of the Mantra is revealed in the forward movement or creative powers. In the Veda it is called “the stirring of the waters”. The speech Vak – is then called “Vyahriti” – a sacred word that creates, it is said in the Vedas that the true nourishment and development of Vak is in following and finding the supreme state of Vak through sacrifice. It is this Vak that enters the hearts of the rishis and then proclaimed invoked and imparted by them as mantras or hymns.


The nourishment and development of Vak – the speech and anga – the limbs are inseparably intermixed. The nourishment and development of “anga” the limbs as a result of the purification of the inner being, ends in the cognition of the body as sky – “akasha – sharire”. The vibration of the mantra – the mystic words in this akasha – the sky – is the true and supreme nourishment of the speech – vak. That speech is not uttered by the organs of speech alone. In the language of the mystics – it is the ringing, tinkling sound, silently produced by the strings of the body that is like Veena (a musical instrument in the hands of goddess saraswati). The human being (the purusha) is then “full of speech (Vak), full of light, full of nector (amrit). His whole body then is a jingling, tinkling of Om. A little earlier we have given the description of the embodied nectar like experience of the seven divisions of Sama song with the help of seven essential parts of the body, as described in the Jaiminiya Upanishad. In the language of the Tantra, the body of the devotee is “mantra-sharira”- the body made up of the sacred word or hymn and his repetition or muttering of the mantra – japa – is ajapa – i.e. silent repetition of the mantra. Then it is not “doing” japa or repetition of the word, but “being” japa – mantra – the sacred hymn or prayer then terminates into one lettered Vak (speech) i.e. Om.


Jaiminiya Upanishad talks about speech at many places in different ways. Its essence is described in the very beginning in the form of aptionisms like this: The essence of sama Veda is the heaven the sky; heaven’s essence is the DSun. Beyond that (sun) is one WORD – OM. This Om is Vak – the speech. The essence of speech is the life breath – Prana. If the body of the devotee is full of Sama and if the end or fulfillment of Sama is Om and if Om is the vibration of life breath in the great Void, then there is a definite sequence in the gradual manifestation or development in the limbs (anga), the speech (vak) and the life- breath (prana).


Then the development and nourishment of the limbs (anga) helps the nourishment and development of the speech (vak) and the nourishment and the development of the speech lead to the nourishment and development of the life- breath (prana). Then in the language of Rig Veda then is the fall enjoyment of the god ordained span of life as a result of the steadiness of the strong limbs and the harmonious hymning of the body.




The subject of the nourishment and development of Prana. The Life Breath naturally follows after the nourishment of speech. just as mind is the basis and gathering of all the senses of knowledge, Prana – the life force is the basis and gathering of all the senses of Action. Moreover Life force and mind are a dual principle. it is a fundamental principle and clue of the Vedic philosophy. As Prana – life force is inseparably attached to Prajna – Knowledge, Knowledge too is inseparably attached to life force. Therefore in kaushitat Upanishad Indra is “ life force whose soul is knowledge” – Pranat Prajnatma.


Etymologically “Prana” – life Breath means Breathing out – “praswasa”. It is obvious that living beings remain alive because of the activity of breathing in and breathing out and because of that Life Breath – Prana, the name for life force, which radiates in all directions, whose source is the Sun. This “asu” breath or ray has become in men “Ayu” – “breath of life”. Its fountain source is “agni” the fire which radiates from the heat of the body. That is why “sgni” is also called “ayu” in Veda or “Viswayu” – the life of the Universe – on the highest level “agni” the fire –God is called the piller of life force – “ayu- stamba”.


In short, spiritually the presiding deity of Prana – the life force is the sun and subjectively the presiding deity is “agni” the fire god or the heat of the body. It is the Sun who comes doen in the body as “Vaiswanara agni” – the fire that is in all men: Again, as the fire of aspiration, the fire god rises


Unto the sun. This coming down and rising up, both are the activity of Prana – the life force. In the Rig Veda the activity coming down of the sun due to the attraction of the serpent queen”surparagni” is called “apana” and when he goes back to his abode, the activity is called Prana. This action of coming down and rising up of Prana is the life of the soul. In the famous savitri mantra, establishing – bringing down the searching heat of the sun in the body by breathing in is called the action of “Apana”; and the propelling of our intelligence by the Sun by breathing out is the action of the Prana. This is the rhythm of the repetition of the “Hausa” mantra of the tantra and because it is natural silent repetitive action of the soul, it is also called “ajapa” – that which is repetition of mantra and yet not so! This is called in the Kaushitaki Upanishad “pratardan’s inner fire sacrifice” . According to Prasno Upanishad, spiritually Sun is the Life force – prana of all beings, while subjectively Prana life force is “agni” the fire. both are one. Again if we look at the activity of breathing-in and breathing-out of air, the presiding deity or spiritual form of Prana or Life force is “Vaya” the windgod. The sun represents the knowledge from of Prana, while the wind-god “Vayu” represents the action form of Prana, but we have alays to keep in mind that knowledge and action always go together.In Nighantu (dictionary of Vedic words) both of them have these common names “dhi” the intelligence, “kratu” – the works – as well as “Shaehi” – the power of action (?) (Shaehi is the name of the wife of Indra, who is the master of Action and hence the Sakti – the Force or energy of Indra is “Shaehi”




Along with breathing we also have knowledge of smell through the nose with the help of life breath – “Prana” and so the word Prana – life breath is also used for the senses of smell in the Veda. Prana is then called nose “nasikya”.


We get references to the five faculties of Prana – the life force – called Prana, Apana, ryana, samana and udana at various places in the Upanishads. In Rik Samhita in the hymn of sarparagni, there is reference only of too faculties, Prana and apana. We find refrences to other faculties in the different Yajuh somhitas. In the Madhyandin Samhita while talking about sacrifice, we have a reference first of Aya – the life span and then of the five faculties of Prana etc followed by Vak the speech and other Brahma-Purushas – the doormen of Brahman. It is worth noting that all these are mentioned together at one place. In chandogya Upanishad we have reference to the faculty of ascending Udana connected with the yoga of nervous system. This nerve is called “hitanadi” in Prrihadaranyaka Upanishad. In the Hatha yaga the same is called the “sushumna” nerve and in the Madhyngin Samhits it is called “Surya Rastimi” the ray of the sun which means that the connection of the heart with the sun is through – this nerve (way)

In philosophy, the property of vayu – the wind – is touchier; there is a reference to the quality of touch in the samkhya philosophy. In Veda the deity of the quality of touch is “Prushni”. She is the mother of Marudgama – the forty-nine maruts – winds. The Marudgana are the deity of the mid regions called the Universal Life force (Viswa prana). The etymological meaning of the word is “storm of light”. In Nighantu “prisni” is the common name for the heavens (Dymloka) as well as the Sun (adithya) – signifying the orb of the sun (in a circle of the light) surrounded by light. Maruts or the universal life force (Viswa Prana) comes out of this. It is worth noting that in the hymn of Sarparagni; the Sun – aditya – the source of Prana is also called “Prishni”. In the Nirukta etymologically the word is derived from the root “sprush”. We can easily compare this” Prishni” with Gita’s “Brahma Sansparsta” – contact of Brahman – which is opposite to the transients sense of touch.


We have already talked about how the Vaiswanara Agni- the universal Fire – radiates through the seven flames of Prana in the head. There Prana is the means or the instrument of knowledge. But this knowledge is in fact the transformation of food. Vaiswanara Fire is then the eater of food – annada as Orana. We have in Brihadaramyaka Upanishad, “All that is here is Food and the eater of Food. Soma is Food and the fire is the Eater”. Soma is the means for attaining immortality. Indirectly all Food is that. The Vaiswanars Fire i.e. the prana in us wishes to ward off death in this mortal world. Therefore Prana is the leader in the Sadhana – discipline - of Immorality, in spite of the fact that the Food of this world is contaminated by death


We have seen that Prana is Fire, Prana is wind (vayu) and Prana is Sun. In the language of Samhita Prana pervades all the three regions, that is, it is gathered and radiated in all the three worlds – Just as Brahma and Vak – the speech are a couple, Brahma and Prana are also a couple. This is in short the description of the Vedic Prana. We can call it one of the chief pillars of Vedic Saghana – discipline, philosophy and life. The enjoyment of the divinely ordained Prana in an all-round , healthy, happy and blissful life is the supreme goal of Vedic life.


Now something about the nourishment of {rana. First comes the nourishment of the Fire of Prana. Their Prana is the eater of Food – annada – and Prajapati – the lord of the people. Of pure food helps in the nourishment of the eater Prana. The sacrifice of Pranagni – fires of Prana – is one of the means. It is described in details in the chhandogya Upanishad. The last oblation of that sacrifice is offered yo udana. As a result of its satiety – the skin – twak is satiated, that in turn satiates the wind (vayu) and in the end the sky – akasha – is satiated. Then the action of Udana transforms the sense of touch of the whole body into divine touch – the touch of Vayu – the wind god and in the end it spreads out in the sky. This is the end result of contemplating and saturating Prana with the idea of sacrifice. It does not satisfy only the lower self – the human soul, but it gives divine satisfaction. It is the Bliss of Silence, the bliss of Void. The worlds that will be awakened in the consciousness of man by the sacrifice of the Prana Fires are the heavens (dyans), the directions (dik), the earth, the lightening and the sky – respectively – which means that the consciousness will spread out like a lightening in the heavens, earth in all directions and then fade out in the sky. Joy of each and ebery sense can end in this way. In a larger way, this also is purification of food, as a result of which man “enjoys Brahman or the vast here itself”. This is way of the nourishment of the Eater (annada) Prana.




It is this annada Prana that generates people and therefore He is called Prajapati :- the Lord or the masters of the peoples. In the chandogya Upanishad in the section concerning the knowledge of the Five Fires it is said, “Purusha – the man is the fire----the Gods sacrifices food (anna) in that fire. From the oblations of food semen is produced----Man sacrifices that semen in the five that is a woman. From that oblation an embryo is generated to on this regard, it is stated in Prasnopanishad that, “Food is indeed Prajapati, from it generates semen and from that all these peoples are born. Similarly in Madhyaandin Samhita it is said, “It is the Prana that is Prajapati, who moves about in the embryo and is born taking the forms of the father and the mother.


The nourishment of this Prana is called the “Vow of Prajapati” or the Vedic science of good procreation. We have talked about it elsewhere.


The acts of eating and procreation both can rise to the dignity and honor of the daily Fire Sacrifice (agni hotra) if performed with define contemplation. The nourishment of the mortal Prana rises to the level of immortality but still a touch of Death is retained in it. This contagion can be removed if there is the nourishment (apya yama) of the prana that is in the form of vayu (the wind) and the sun.


The main action of the Prana in the form of Vaya – the wind is breathing – breathing in and breathing out. Breathing in is done by apana and the other is done by prana. The prana that exists at the junction of prana and apana is called Vyana. Chandogya tells us that at that junction there is no action of either prana or apana. Here in is the root of the prana yama that is called Kumbhaka (stopping of breath) in yoga.


The experience of Kumbhaka is like a pot full of water, a feeling of fullness. The feeling is both static and dynamic. The experience of fullness in the body then spreads out in the void of the sky. In the chhandogya this sky is called, “even that is this Akasha within the (lotus of the ) heart. This is all- filling and unchanging” – it is like the pot full with watch submerged in the sea – the water in it is shaking and quaking but not overflowing. The experience of this all-pervading fullness of the chief Prana within body without any activity of Pranayama is the result of Vedic Pranayama. The control of Prana is not contraction or suppression of Prana as in the Yogic Pranayama


but its expansion and pervasion. The subjective Prana then is one with the cosmic Prana that is Vayu and in the experience of the Siddha (saint) that Vayu is the immortal wind in his body tempered by the force of Yoga. Then prana is brahma, vayu the wind too is brahma. Both vayu and prana are then samvarga – where all converge the abode from which all arise and in which all dissolve.




There is one easy way for the nourishment of Prana with the help of this Prana Yama as described by Pratardana in Kanshitaki Upanishad. It is called “Inner agnihotra sacrifice of self control”


Udana always flows upwards. It is said in the Chandogya Upanishad that immortality can be attained with the help of Udana. To raise the consciousness upwards with the help of Udana through the Hita nerve and dissolve in the great void. This also is nourishment of Prana. We have already talked about the action of Udana during Prana – Agni hotra. Udana is the nerve risind up from the heart to head and beyond. Chhandogya says, “It is Vayu – the wind god, as well as Akasha – the sky.


If we take Prana as smell, we can experience Brahman as smell. It is thus said in the knowledge related to Brahma – couch in Kaushitake Upanishad. It may be noted that there we also find mention of taste and halo of Brahman which together lead to the purification of all the physical senses and there by development of the intuitive faculity in the traveler of the path of the Gods. This also is the nourishment of Pranna.


The quality of Vayu is touch. The sense of touch is the skin (twak). In the fifth or last oblation of

Prana- agnihotra in the gratification of all through the gratification of the skin, the wind and the sky by Udana lays the nourishment of the Universal Prana through the quality of touch. This is “Brahma- Sanesparsha” – contact of Brahman whose deity is “Prishni” – mother of Maruts.


Vayu – The wind’s abode is midregions; the Sun is heavens – the sky. When Prana with the help of vyana and udana reaches, establishes in the Sun, then Prana is united with the Prajna – the life force then are a divine couple. The sky is the body of Brahman and Prana the rest relaxation in it. As the rishis of the Veda worshipped Prana, they were called pranavadinal – worshippers of Prana, we have talked about this in the Isha- Upanishad.


Prana and Prajna – life force and knowledge are inseperable. Both are called “Indriya” of Indra or sr m”Indravirya” – energy or force of Indra. Prana develops into Prajna. So after the nourishment of Prana life force comes the nourishment of Prajna – knowledge. Five senses of knowledge are the means of acquiring knowledge – the nose, the tongue, the skin, the eye and the ear. Out of these five only two, the eye and the ear are selected as Brahma – purushas or Doormen of Brahman. Seeing and hearinh are the main instruments of attaining Brahman. It is said in Chandogya Upanishad, “Worship as if you have seen Him or heard Him”. In Brihadaranyaka successively talks about the seeing, hearing, thinking and mediating or knowing Atman.


Though seeing and hearing all the main instruments of realization for a seeker, in the Saint, the realized person all the senses are nourished, development. The Peace Invocation also indicates it. We have already talked about the concective attainment of Brahma smell, Brahma taste and Brahma light mentioned in Kaushitaki Upanishad. There out of the five senses of knowledge, we find mentions of nourishment of the first three senses. It is worth noting that in Prasnopanishad Udana is called Light or Glow – “teja”. Udana is the ascending flow of Prana – which in ordinary language call “rising of wind in the head” or “heating of head”, it is said in the Upanishad that the body is heated or fired up. It is said in the chandogya Upanishad that the light that shines beyond the heavens, shining all the lower worlds, shines also in man. The heat of this light is the heat of the human body. We can feel it by the senses of touch. That again is “seeing” or “sight”. Here we see that the light of the sun is the heat of the body. The heat generated by the action of Udana is that glow, “teja”. That is the glow or vigour or luster of Brahman; which results in the sun-skin “surya twak” of the siddha – chandogya also talks about the nourishment of the skin through the nourishment of Udana. The word “teja” in kaushitaki then means something between “heat” and “light”.


In Veda what is subjectively called “eye” is called cosmically or with respect to deity. The sun is the eye that is wide open in the heavens to see that eye with one’s eye is the direct vision of Brahman. Aryas were called “jyotiragra” men whose guide “dishari” – is the light, the sun. The light of the fire god within and the light of the sun outside – is their God deity or the self-Atman. The goal of their life is to enjoy this fearless light while living here in the body as a result of Soma sacrifice. And so their prayer to the deity is “Oh, God, remove this darkness, fill our eyes with thy light”.


That is the nourishment and development of the sense of eye. Subjecyively and cosmically it happens in two ways. Firstly, to be vast by having the direct vision of the sun – God by this very eye and to experence the widening of the selfconsciousness.


When this experience deepens, oneday there will be a Sunrise within – in the innerbeing- the one whom we were seeing outside will be seen within. We will know, realize the great truth, “yo as an as an purushah so ham as me” “the Purusha who is there yonder, He am I” or “Tat twam as;” “Thou art that”. Then we will see Him as “Bhadra” as the “all good, all blissful light”. The highest nourishment of the eye lies in this conscious – direct – vision of the divine.


After the nourishment of the eye, follows the nourioshment of the ear. In Vedic discipline, both the senses gotogether; between them there is a conscentiveness. First seeing, then hearing. There are indications about this in the chandogya and the Brihedaranyaka. Chandogya says “it is to be worshipped, as it is seen and heard”. We have to see and hear the deity within our being, the deity that is in heavens. How that is seen has also been said – the feeling, experience of heat is to transformed in the experience of light. And the hearing is like this. When we shut the two ears, we hear a sound “nada” as if a fire isssss burning within; mind has to be absorbed there. Later the Hatha yagis developed it in the discipline of trance of mind through concentration on sound.


Brihedaranyaka tells, “O”Maitreyi, this self is to be seen, heard, though about and meditated upon. By seeing, hearing, thinking and mediating on the self, all this is known. Here hearing, thinking and mediatation are considered the means of “seeing” the self. Subjectively with regards to our inner self, this is alright. But in the Veda along with the subjective seeing there is also the cosmic way of seeing, seeing the deity behind the thing. There, the deity is not only the matter of inner experience but there is the direct conscious vision of the deity – outside – objectivity.


Everywhere, in all things and beings, the conscious direct vision of the Divine is the foremost soul of the Vedic sadhana.


Rishi Katya yana says, “One great SELF is the Deity of the Veda. He is called the SUN. He is the soul and self of all beings. By worshipping this directly seen Sun-God yagyavalkya had obtained the Pure Yaju-mantras. The force and greatness of this direct vision, we witness throughout that Upanishad. Therefore we can say that Yagyavalkyas vision of self was the direct result of the direct vision the this sun, the self of all beings; this is very clear from the mantra beginning with “Pushan Ekarshe” and ending in “That Purusha there and there , He am I”. The sequence in this realization is ; First the seeing of the Sun and then hearing and thinking and mediating and getting the knowledge as a result of it.


The Vision of the Sun is the Visions of “His Most Blissful Form”. General description of its accordingly to Chandogya is “ The Pure- white Light” But beyond the Form is the Formless. Behind the “Pure-white light” of the Sun is the “Blue Supreme Darkness” that is the colourless bluish light of the sky. The Sky and the Sun together form One, Couplet, whole Being. Spiritually speaking behind the Form is the sprit. According to the Bandra tradition we can say, behind the Form is the Name. Name is mystic term in the Veda- it means the unmanifest basis of the Manifest. We have at several places in the Veda the mention of the Secret – sacred mystic hidden Name- put in mystic language. What is Name? Subjectively and cosmically as a deity it is Vak and that is OM.


Just as behind the Sun, there is Sky, Just as behind its white pure light is the loght blue of the Supreme Dark, so behind the Form is the Name. And therefore Akasha the Sky is the Home, the resort of Name and the carrier of Form. The creation or generation of the Universe is from the Sky or the Supreme Void of the Supreme heavens. It is the mutation of the Immitable. The universe, the creation is Name and Form, Akasha- the Sky is its source. And so the quality of the Sky – Akasha – the sky is its source. And so the quality of the Sky – Akasha – is sound – or word (Shabda). We see the sky as Sun and hear it as Name beyond Form – as the jingling, tinking sound of Om, as the lowing of Gauri – the cow.


This Gauri is called Vak. Vak is the inseparable Energy or Power – shakti – of Brahman. Vak spreads as far as Brahman spreads. Our speech is in descending order the fourth step or state of Vak. The other three states are hidden in the cave of the being. We have talked of this earlier with the nourishment of Vak the inner power of our spoken mantra geto strengthened, developed and nourished in the ascending order. The hearing of that Vak is the true nourishment – apyayana – of the Ear. Uttering and hearing of the same – speech or Vak go together. The Vak that I am uttering or sending throwing upwards towards the sky, that same Vak returns from there and enters into my ears. This is as if the sound that goes up from here comes down from there as an echo. The one who hears my speech there, He is “ashruta-karna”. One whose ears hear sound from everywhere – All-hearing. In the Upanishads He is called “Shruta Purusha”. All-hearing Person. The Vak, the speech by which He responds to my Speech and which comes down to my ears – that I am called Prati shrutka Purusha – the person who hears the returned speech. And He is “ima Viswa jatani asyavayati s’lokena, pra cha suvati. RV. 5/82/9. (He who gives glory unto all these living creatures with the song, and brings them forth, is Savitri – tr of Griffith. Sri Ramakrishna tells about this in his incomparable language, “Somebody calls from within me- “O” my friend – chakha -! and immediately someone answers from above – “O my dear friend – Chakhi (sakhi)! Brihwdaranyaka called such mutual, reciprocal relation a sweet spiritual relation. This all- Sky pervading echo and reecho spreads in all directions. And sp the Directions (dik) are its DEITY.


This hearing of the Sun is the supreme nourishment of the ear. Through abstract hearing we hear the sacred words – another name for which is “Vyahruti” – the sacred letters – or the formulas – mantras – of creation. At its root is the primal Desire – “kama” or the creation energy that rises in the creator’s mind, “manasoretal” – which is His will- wish to create His desire to be many. This impilling – pressing of Desire in the Divine is the supreme state of Vak – speech – the energy of Brahman. In philosophy it is called “Sphota” – the manifestation. Something is manifesting but has not yet taken definite form. It is like the sky in the third part of the New Moon’s night. There the light is about to break but has not year appeared. The sky’s silence is quivering with the possibilities of the breaking light, but light has not yet appeared. This vibration of energy for the manifestation in the Upanishad manifest is Para vak – the supreme state of speech is tantra. After the supreme state of speech “para vak” is the pashyanti vak – the seeing speech – It is like light of dawn. In the Veda it is called “swar Brihat” or “Brihat-jyoti” – the light of the Vast – the light that is growing, spreading, the next state of vak is called “Medhyama” the middle one. It is as if the rays of the light of sun is spread out in the Sky but there is still darkness on the earth. All these three states of speech are hidden in the cave of the inner being. Mind does not know it but the higher intuitive mind knows. The fourth state of the speech is recognized by the mind, the sense – It is the language we speak. The orb of the Sun; as if, has appeared in husky; light is spread out everywhere, Life on earth has began. Till mid-day the light controls the day and the control of sun is called Bhaga.


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creation is the manifestation of the Upanishad manifest. We have to keep this in mind while speaking about it. This descent of Vak in view of the growing, expanding light.


From the viewpoint of the spreading – expanding Vak we can know Vak in its ascent, its ascending states. Then our ordinary speech – the Vaikhari vak rises to thought or feeling;from thought or feeling (madhyama) to intuitive perception – pasyanti and from paiyanti to para – the energy – vibration of the Unmanifest. There is some discussion about then while explaining the peace Invocation of Aitareya Upanishad. We have said then, that the way of seeing is helpful in Mantra – sadhana. This is why in yoga we are advised to respeat the Pranava (Omkara japa) along with meaning. The word than condenses in the thought or feeling, from mind or heart to Intuition or direct Perception and from Intuition to Shakti – the Energy. This is the way of Dissolution. The Sadhana of Nadanu sandhana – going to the Origin of sound – in Hatha yoga follows the same way. The nourishment of Vak – the speech is full and complete in this two streams of Ascent and Descent and there in also lies the full nourishment of the Ear as a result of mutual reciprocity. The word of the divine descends in me and I Hear it fully with my two ears – “karnabhyam bhuri vishruvam” – I have heard it fully with my two ears and thereby “my tongue is full of honey” “jihva me madhumattama” and “I am praying speaking to Hin with sweet words” – madhumattamam vacati and hearing which the Heart is filled with Supreme Peace. This is what is called the sweet, affectionate calling between the two loving birds.


In the wordly sense the nourishment and strengthening of the ear through “Parayana” where the Teacher teaches, gives the lecture and the disciple responds to it by repeating the same words or mantras. There the Teacher is a “Shakta” a teacher capable of infusing and transmitting the power of the mantra to disciple; and the “taught” – the student or disciple receives it with faith. This is “shiksha” – the way of teaching is one of the disciplines of Veda called Vedanga. Its complete success and true significance lies in the fact that without mediation on the meaning, simply on hearing the mantra, the covering of the dark unconsciousness is removed due to the realized and accumulated power of the mantra.


With the nourishment and strengthening of the Ear, we have completed the discussion on the strengthening of the four Brahma – Purushas, the Doorkeeper of Brahma only the nourishment and strengthening of the Mind. But we can say that the Mind is involved in all these four because the mind itself is the main instrument of their strengthening. In sadhana – discipline, Mind is called the Divine Eye “daiva chakshu” “ananta”, the infinite, and the supreme godhead “parama devata”, because the Mind is the abode, resting place ayatana of all the senses. After strengthening of the four senses. After strengthening of the four senses, the Upanishad talks of the strengthening of “all the senses” – sarvenduiya. This is the nourishment and strengthening of the mind.




We have already said, that there is an order in the descipline of nourishment and strengthening. It begins with the body and endo with the mind. Altogether there is the strengthening of the body, life force and mind and there is successive upward rising development of knowledge. Prana is the bridge between senses organs of Action speech etc. and organs of knowledge. It is worth noting that yogyavalkya too has followed this order in the Shadacharya Brahmana of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. But there is no mention of body there. Instead, he talks about the heart at the end. And each Brahma- purusha is “supreme brahma, which means, with the help of any one of these, one can attain the supreme goal – which is knowledge, love, truth, bliss and stability. The main nature the essential quality of the heart is the establishment, stability in Brahma on which yagnavalkya puts great stress at many places.


This is the first part of ayayana – nourishment and strengthening. Then begins the second part with the word aths. This is in fact the result, the first that acernes from the first part.


as a result of the strengthening of the body and the Brahmapurushas, there is growth of the strength in the body and soul. The word “bala” – strength, vigour, is used at many places in Rig Veda. As it is used, we can understand that its main meaning is “ojat” spiritual humanous power and “virya and virility.




Indra is specially connected with this strength, force, and virility. He himself is born out of strength and Virility and is a “bistower” of strength and virility to us. at one place he is called “bala visnaya – knower of strength and virility. It is said Mundakopanishad “na ayam atma bala hinene labhya” – this atma is not attainable for a person who is without strength and virility. Therefore bala is very important spiritual quality. It is one of the very necessary quality called “virya” – virility in yoga – upaya – pratyaga which is attainable only when one is truly established in “brahmacharya – continence. The strength of a sadhaka is intense aspiration. In Samhita it is called “sahah” or “torch” which means the power, the capacity to cross over all difficulties and move forward and the strength of a siddha – perfected Guru – teacher is in his capacity to transmit power in the disciple and therefore he is called a “shakta” a person of great Power. The strength of the Teacher and the Taught together makes the atterinment of the chosen deity or goal possible and therefore the Teacher and the Taught together pray in the Upanishad, “saha, viryam Karvavahai – may we together use our energies in works. In Chandogya Upanishad “bala” strength is considered

Greater than Vijnana – knowledge; because perfection, full attainment does not come by knowledge alone. Perfection or fultness is the ability to transmit the knowledge in others.


Yoga, generally talks about Faith Sraddha and strength Virya where as Upanishad talks about Faith and Tapah – austerity. Austerity strengthens virility – virya and the ideals of Austerity are the Fire – agni and the Sun – adithya – especially the Sun whose radiation of heat and light is inexhaustible. So the nourishment and strengthening of the brahma purushas lies in the meditation and worship of the sun and therein also lies the strengthening of bala – virility.




When the body and the self are strengthened all the senses, sarvan, indriyani too will be strengthened. Ten Senses, five senses of knowledge are well known. In Rigveda they are mentioned as ten machines – dasa – yantra, but what are these ten, is not mentioned. It is said in the Brihad – aranyaba that in the body of man, there are eleven Rudras – ten visible pranas along with (invisible) self (atma). There also it is mentioned, what these ten pranas are but as the senses are the functions of the Prana wew can surmise that ten pranas indicate the ten senses. At another place in Brihadaranyaka we find mention of skin, nose, tongue, eyes and ears as five senses of knowledge and hands, male organ, bowels, feet and speech as five senses of action. Apart from them, there is a mention of mind and heart as well. In Prasnopanishad we find that all the ten senses are separately mentioned. In Kaushitaki Upanishad there is a mention of the ten parts of matter and ten parts of knowledge. There the speech, smell, form, word or sound, flavour of food, works or action, pleasure and pain, enjoyment dallionce – offspring, walking or movement, mind and the rudiments of Prajna connected with these ten elements. All these are dependent on Prana. We can see that the Tongue is indicated by enjoyment and dalliance works or Actions are done generally by hands and offspring by male organ. There is no mention of Bowels here. Touch and offspring are indicated together by the male organ. Two gaps are filled up by pleasure- pain and mind Taittriya Upanishad talks in detail about the sense – we will talk about it later. In general we can say that the structure of ten senses is very ancient. The co-ordination between the senses and mind-heart and self is also worth noting.


What belongs to Indra is called Indriya The word Indriya is used in this sense at many p[laces in Samhita. For example, sama is called the juice of Indra – indriya rasat horses of indra are indriya hayah, greatness of Indra is Machimanam Indriyam etc. When it is used as a sustantive, it means virility of Indra. eg. Indrayam Brihat – vastness of Indra, Mahati Indriyaya – for the greatness of Indra; Jyestham In driyam – superiority of Indra, etc. The use of the word Indriya in this sense is very frequent. Only at the end of Saunakar Samhita we find the word used as we understand as “sense organ”. All these five senses include mind the sixth is that is sharpened by prayer in the heart.


Paninianalysis it thus : indriyam – indra-lingam- indradrishtam – indra srishtam – indra jushtam – indradatham iti va - the expression Indriya is introduced to donate the following services 1) means (lingam) by which the self is inferred; 2) perceived by the self (drishtam); 3) created by the self (shristam) 4) nourished by the self (justam) or given by the self (dattam). Here Indra is the supreme duty or self. The manifestation of theenergy of the sense organs are through the Prana in the head, which is the dynamis of thePrajna (knowledge) of Indra, the controller within – from this viewpoint “indriya” is the conventional name for eye, ear and other organs. In the Buddist Philosophy any organ that reaches its maximum potentiality is called “Indriya” – so the eye is called “Indriya” only when it is able to see thesupreme deity or ideal. `The Vedic idea of strengthening and nourishment apyayana is clearly seen in this fact.




What is said about strengthening all the sense organs in the peace invocation is in line with the Vedic view of illumined spiritual realization and attainment only the individual spiritual experience of the deity is not enough. Sadhana should also begin with the cosmic spritual experience. That there is a great vastness surrounding me – the earth, the mountains, the oceans, in the light, the air, the sky surrounding me, everywhere there is this unlimited infinite vastness. “Urur anibadha”. The efflorescence and expansion of consciousness that is experienced then is the direct experience, the vast, the Infinite, that is Brahma that is Bhuma. As said in Chandogya Upanishad, “That Infinite alone is below. That is above. That is behind. That is in front. That is to the south. That is to the north. That all is all this. When this experience of the sense organs deepens and enters the inner heart then “comes the teaching in regard


Self – the “I” – I alone am below, I am above, ia am behind, I am in front, I am to the south, I am to the north – I am alone above all this. This “I” again expands to self. “Atman”


Thus the experience, the teaching is through Atman. Atman alone is below; Atman alone is in front. Atman is to the south, Atman is the north. Atman alone is all this.


This is really an incomparably beautiful sadhana- discipline and siddhi – attainment. It is the essence of Veda. The meptics of the middle age called “sahaja Samadhi” – natural trance – kabir sings, without closing eyes or ears. I am in trance”. Ankha na mudn; kana na rundhu; sahaj Samadhi bhali.


Taittiriya Upanishad concludes with this experience; “Brahman is then as safety or presentation in speech; as acquisition and preservation (yoga-kshema) in Prana and Apana; as work in hands; as motion in the feet and as evacuation in the anus – this is called contemplation on Brahman associated with man (manushi samajna). Then the contemplation on Brahman associated with the celestial or divine phenomena (daivi samajna). Brahman is in rains as satisfaction; as strength in ligtening; as fame in cattle – as light in the stars; as procreation, immortality and joy in the generative organ and as all in the sky. and this one who is the man and that one yonder in the sun – are one and the same – one who knows this, going through all worlds enjoying foods at will, assuming forms at will – all his life becomes a sama song – where in rever beralts the greatness of the self.


This is the wonderful picture of the strengthening of all the sense organs. We find the same idea outlined and proclaimed in this beautiful mantra, rik of Gotam Rahugana.


Bhadram Karnebhiti Srunuyama devah


Bhadram Pashyema Akshabhiti Yajatrah

Sthirain Angai Tushtuvansas tanubhir

Vyshema Devahitam Yad Ayuh - RV.


May we hear the Good by our ears, O gods,

May we see the Good by our eyes, O Holy Ones

With limbs and bodies firm and strong, may we extalling you

Enjoy and attain the span of life ordained by the Gods.


The good is what is illuminated, vast and vigourous. The supreme god is all Good – As His Action, Power of Creation is also good – As fire (agni) and soma, what He bestows, His grace – prasada – is also Good – as the unmiserly giving of Indra is Good. To hear this good, to see this Good, to transform our limbs and bodies, making them firm and strong into a flaming hymn of all Good – this is our supreme objective.


And doing that to enjoy fully the life span of hundred years the life span ordeained by the gods.


In this lies the full and complete nourishment and fulfillment of our wish to live.


When this all- good strengthing the body and self is accomplished, one realizes – “Sarvam Aripanishadam Brahma. All this, whatever I am and all that surrounds me is Brahman the vast the infinite proclaimed by the Upanishad. In Chandogya Upanishad, in the teaching of Shandiliya, we have a similar Maha vakya Khalu Idam Brahma – verily All this is Brahman – There are two kinds of Brahma – Sabda Brahma – Brahma as word and Aupanishad Brahma or Para Brahma. The Supreme Brahma. In RikSamhita we see that vak and Brahma are inseperable always together.


Brahma is consciousness and vak – the speech is its Shakti, energy, and power. The vastness and expansion of consciousness attained due to the strengthening of the body and self is brahma. This Brahma is expressed through Vak or Mantra. Mantra is the vibration, throbbing of the light of mind, similar to the quivering of the light of the sun. It culminates in Omkara. This Omkara is sabda-brahma – the mantras in the veda are its extension and expansion. During Sadhana sagda brahma denotes Para Brahma. One realizes it when Para Brahma is deeply established in the heart of the sadhaka. Therefore it is called Aupanishad Brahma. It is called “Aupanishad Purusha” in Brinadaran yaka Upanishad, who is the upholder and maintainers of the eight purushas, in the body, in Desire, in the sun, in the hearing, in the echo, in the shadow, in the mirror, in the water and in the son and yet is beyond all of them.


This entering and establishing of Brahma in the body and self of the purusha is its grace. For the purusha it is realization, attainment. In Jaiminiya Upanishad the root Upanishad is used in both these meanings. Taking the two meanings together the word, “Upanishad” will mean “an extra cosmic experience as a result of the infusion of the vast, the infinite.” This idea is apparent at many places in the kenopanishad.


Such supernatural, superwordly experience first comes as a flash of lightening – it is momentary. But it awakens in the mind an ardent aspiration and strong determination to attain the divine. This intense ardency is explicit in the next mantra of the peace-invocation. Me aham brahma nirakutyam, ma ma brahma nirakarote – arirkaruam astu


“May I not repudinate Brahma. May not Brahma repudinate. Let ther be no repudiation. He come. He left. Did I repudiate Him? No! No! I did not want to do that! May be there was indulence from my side.


I might have committed some error! It is not possible! I am still under the power of Ignorance, Inconscience! The power of untruth in me is still more powerful than mine! But does not the divine know that my such action is only due to my poverty of the strength. Otherwise, why should I die of thirst? Standing in water? So I pray, “O lord, forgive me, shower thy grace on me. May I never repudiate, deny thee, May you too, never repudiate me! – No, never my lord – may we never repudiate one – another – nor anybody else. Please, remove the poverty of my Action or Determination. Please make my determination strong, unshakeable. May I not deny, repudiate or twinyan away any time, in any way! Anirakarnam me astu.


Such ardent aspiration and sincere determination makes the wavering light steady, stable. There I become “tadatmya” – one with that indescribable infinite. I am then absolutely one with Him, just as the pure water is mixed with pure water. When I am completely one with Him with Love surati, my self too is totally merged in Him nirati Deep Love. There is alias the full and complete refuge of the being.


But this deep diving in Him does not bring about only peace and quiet, it also heralds great joy and exhultation. This resting in Him has not come about in a day. Again and again He has come down and established in me. He has taken total possession of my body and soul. And this coming and entering and establishing of His in me, has aroused in me in such great powers and virtues which transform my being like the rising of the Sun from the dark horizon to the mid-day greatness and expansion of the light of Vishnu. These are the first dharmas – virutues, actions of the universe, the true and real fruits of the sacrifice of the God performed at the beginning of Creation. This transcendental greatness is manifest in the self of man once again due to the sacrifices, austenities and sadhana of man here in this world.


O, my lord, may these great virtues, qualities, dharmas manifest in my body and soul that has been consecrated and strengthened by the in fusion. May we be enlightened; may the peace of the heavens descend in us; may the peace of midregions descend in us; may the peace envelop the earth.




Here ends Peace Invocation


Let us now begin the book.




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Blog Posts

Two recent books by me

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A Plea for United India

Posted by bubun das on August 31, 2011 at 4:05

The Last Bargain, by Rabindranath Tagore

Posted by Dan Duncan on August 8, 2011 at 19:12

Gurudev's poem Prantik 2

Posted by Sharat Kumar Bhushan on August 7, 2011 at 18:10 — 1 Comment


Posted by subhashish borah on August 4, 2011 at 13:24

Sri Anirvan : Written Book

Posted by Soumen Paul on May 25, 2011 at 6:51






-Je Raate Mor Duaar Guli
This song gives the extraordinary feeling of the capacity of Sri Anirvan to arrive at the very moment of emergency when he was needed. How he just appeared there, was a miracle.

That night when my doors were smashed by the storm, I did not know it was you who had entered my house. All around everything went black, the wick of the lamp was extinguished.
I stretched out my arms to reach the sky, towards hope..
I did not know it was you who had entered my house,
That night when my doors were smashed by the storm.
I lay there sobbing, thinking it all a dream,
How could I know that the storm was a pennant of your triumph?
Morning dawned, and I beheld you,
A fountain of tears, you, yourself.
The whole house, save for ourselves, was and had been empty.
I did not know it was you who had entered my house,
That night when my doors were smashed by the storm.



Sung by Srikant Acharya, intro by Soumitra Chatterjee

Sung by the famous singer Pankaj Mullick of the 1940s.
Art thou abroad on this stormy night
On thy journey of love, my friend?
The sky groans like one in despair.
I have no sleep tonight.
Ever and again I open my door and look out on the darkness, my friend!
I can see nothing before me.
I wonder where lies thy path!
By what dim shore of the ink-black river,
By what far edge of the frowning forest,
Through what mazy depth of gloom art thou threading thy course to come to me, my friend?



Sraboni Sen - Tai Tomar Anondo Amar Por -

INDRANI SEN - Je Raate Mor Duar Guli -






Please click on the appropriate links -

Please sample and view the first15 pages -blank or printed-of the book by clicking on the arrow on the side of the book image -VIEW ON fULLsCREEN


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1.GITANUVACHAN translated into english by SMT KALYANI BOSE


translated into english by SMT KALYANI BOSE

3.MANDUKYA UPANISHAD English Translation






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Right now busy in addressing J Krishnamurti's followers in India and abroad.Struggling to finish book on Adwait,Raman,Nisargadatt Maharaj,Jk


, aju mukhopadhyay

- "I am thinking how so to fix the attention so it can be unwavering- never turns aside- Oh! What great a job-"

My interest in Sri Anirvan continues with greater intensity these days. I have read almost all the valuable translations of his writings appearing in the blogs.

Unfortunately I do not know any Bengali although ambitiously I got many of his writings from the Dharampal's when I met them some years ago.


request: it seems Sri Aniravan used to give regular talks on Sri Aurobindo's Savitri in the Pathmandir. It would be a great service if someone could translate these talks since Anirvan's insight would help clarify many aspects of Savitri.

Thanks again and best regards



Sharat Kumar Bhushan Di' I do not know why these lines by Hammarskjold are coming to my mind after reading your comment.

"Night!The road stretches ahead.Behind me it winds up in curves towards the house,a gleam in the darkness under the dense trees of the park.I know that,shrouded in the dark out there,people are moving,that all around me,hidden by the night,life is a quiver.I know that something is waiting for me in the house.Out of the darkness of the park comes the call of solitary bird:and I go-up there


subhashish borah

- We should be proud of what we are, and we should not be dejected at what we are not as we desire. We should be proud of what we are not that we didn't wish for.

But the horror is that we are starting to be proud of what we are not that we desire to be!

The philosophy is that if you are X, be proud of being X, and don't be dejected because you are not the most fortunate one of the world you may have a dormant desire to be so. And be proud for you are not the most unfortunate person in the world and you didn't, don't and will never desire to be so.

But don't be proud of your vain self-images, just be proud of what you are and realize it with optimum firmness. There is a difference between "Will" and "hope". Suppose you want to be something or somebody in this life time. You cannot become that, if you are not at this very moment not that something or somebody you want to realize.This should be dormant within you waiting just for expression or manifestation. When proper time, environment and other supportive factors will be available to you, and if you have the necessary will to be so, you will one day appear as such.

Let's be our realities, not our imaginations! Let's be free from our inner insecurities! And here I intentionally use the word to be 'proud' in place of simply to 'accept' oneself, because the fact of 'Will' cannot properly manifest through a meek humbleness or moral humility.."


Gurucharan Ojha

- Accept my hearty greet "Jayaguru". I am from Odisha, Devotee of Swami Nigamananda Saraswati. I read little more before Swami Nirbana nanda Saraswati "Anirbana".

I just need to know about his life details.....


subhashish borah - "It is the "sense of wonder" that as 21st century's "homo-fabers" or "homo-technicus" evolving(I doubt!?) far out of our real natures of "homo-sapience" we have lost and we have forgotten to be astonished at things beautiful and as well as horrific!! We have been oblivious of feeling strange at anything...

This sense of wonder I believe is the real essnce of all creativity not only poetry or other art forms but science, mathematics , physics, chemistry, biology etc everything...

It impels us to discover things"


Anirban NAMASTE,

"To all the members in this GROUP"

It's really a pleasure and an honour for me to be a part of this group.




OH LORD, I think I am pretty LOUD and CLEAR.

ANIRBAN-AKASH - Is it a confirmation that our desires/DESIRE are(IS) fulfilled?

For though our desires may yet be fulfilled in this very human birth, do we really crave for our DESIRE to be satiated? If so, how do we enjoy THE ETERNAL LILA?

May we be firmly grounded whilst we touch THE AKASH (The SKY).

Best regards,



Kalyani Bose Dear Anirban,

I was not being able to come to the site for a very long time. Just today I opened it up to see your page and am inpressed. Are you or do you know Bengali? Of course you are because you have read His books. Your question about enjoying the ETERNAL LILA has evoked in my mind an expression form Sri Chaitanya Mahapravu. The Eternal Lila is like 'Tapta Ikshu Charvan' - Again 'Mukh Jwale NA JAi Tyajan-

Prosanti O prasannataye Ujjal Theko.

May the Grace of Sri Anirvan bring in us the Yuganaddha Dyavaprithivi.


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